History - AustralianAustralian CultureCultural Comparisons Between Australia and other Countries

Share |

Customs and Values

Australian quotes

Odd facts of Australia

Shouts and rounds

The fear of inferiority

Important social rules

Black and taboo

Australia Day
The true meaning

Anzac Day
Lest we forget

Red Earth Blue Sky





Bloody Leaf

Quick Guide to Australian Culture

In 2005, the Sydney Morning Herald ran a story concerning how migrant women felt about Australian culture. The story began with the paragraph:

"When asked to talk about Australian culture, their first reaction was laughter. Australia was a cultural vacuum; any culture that existed was "bland" and characterised by "average-looking" people." (1)

The opinion of the female migrants was also fairly typical of opinions expressed by tourists. Ironically, it has been difficult for them to see Australian culture because individual Australians are too creative. Instead of assimilating someone else’s style or creativity, individual Australians create there own. For example, if a tourist visits an Asian restaurant, the conformity amongst Asian chefs makes it very easy to recognize a distinct way of cooking. In modern Australian restaurants; however, the creativity of the chefs makes it difficult to find the commonality that is recognised as culture.

Even though it is difficult for an individual to create a work of quality without building upon a common style, a few Australians have managed to do just that. If migrants, and Australians themselves, looked beyond the dogs breakfast of mangled creativity, there are indeed many cultural expressions in Australia that are worthy of respect and are anything but "average."



Australian timbers are not straight and tend to warp and crack when dried. Consequently, most of Australia's early architecture looked like something Homer Simpson would build. With time, wonky shingles gave way to corrugated iron sheeting. Although not stylish, the roofing was a practical solution to the difficulty of transporting building materials to the isolated interior.

The sentiments expressed in these early buildings have inspired a new generation of architects seeking an Australian style. The leading architect of the genre is Glen Murcutt, winner of the Pritzker. Murcutt takes the understatement of the bush shacks and infuses into them the refined concepts of modern architecture. Murcutt pays close attention to the movement of the sun, moon, and seasons in order to harmonise his buildings with the movement of light and wind.

Greg Burgess - Uluru Cultural Centre

Another bush architect is Greg Burgess. Whereas Murcutt's designs are understated rectangular forms, Burgess' designs seem to remould the earth in flowing curves. Perhaps his most notable work is the Uluru Cultural Centre. The building seems to have been carved from the red earth by some great dreamtime flood.


On the 17th of July 1924, the world's first society of cartoonists, the Black and White Artists' Society, was formed in Sydney. Although they didn't lay the foundation for the creation of any Donald Ducks or Astro Boys, they did they the foundations for a history of political and social comment. For calendars, look for Michael Lunig and his wry take on life. In the newspapers, look for Bill Leak's political comment. For a historical take, seek out Pickering's series on politicians and their genitalia. Try the Ettamogah mob for a bit of humour that you don't think about.


Children's entertainment

The Wiggles - England had the Beatles and Australia had the Cockroaches. Although the Cockroaches had a few top 40 hits on the Australian charts, they never attained the fame of their insect cousin from England.

And so the band went back to school, studied childhood education and reinvented themselves as the Wiggles. World success followed. In 2004, they generated more than $45 million in revenue to become Australia's richest entertainers.

With plans to franchise the band into different languages, the Wiggles are set to gain the kind of global domination, across languages, that the Beatles could only dream about. For many of the world's five-year-olds, the Wiggles are bigger than Jesus!

Hi-5 - Another act in the tradition of the Wiggles, except whereas the Wiggles are all male, Hi-5 has a couple of sexy ladies. This addition of a feminine touch has proved to be very effective in encouraging fathers to take a more active role in their child's parenting.

Bananas in Pyjamas - The mischievous bananas who chase teddy bears have been sold to 36 broadcasters in 42 territories and this year enjoyed unprecedented success in the United States. Over ten years, they have made over $1 billion in revenue on their way to making Australia a banana republic.

Snugglepot and Cuddlepie- May's Gibbs bush world of gumnut heroes and heroines may not have attained world domination, but for those lucky enough to have made their acquiantance, Snugglepot and Cuddlepie have brought endless bedtime drama.


Cooking - Cuisine

Australia's environment influenced much of its early culinary culture. The risk of bacterial contamination in the hot climate forced meat to be turned into charcoal before it was safe for human consumption. The prevalence of flies dissuaded people from leaving meat to dry into jerky or let it decay into salamis. Furthermore, the lack of refrigerated transport made it difficult for farmers to keep the market supplied with niche products. As a consequence of these hardships, Australian chefs had very little to work with when creating culinary masterpieces.

Despite the limited range of products to work with, imaginative chefs were still able to create some recipes that Europe had failed to create in 2,000 years. In the 1930s, Australian chef Herbert Sachse invented the Pavlova out of egg whites.

Sometime in the early 20th century, lamingtons were invented in Queensland Government House kitchen as a creative use for stale sponge.

In 1922 Dr. Cyril P. Callister developed Vegemite from brewer's yeast. The humble sandwich has been a taste delight ever since. It is generally said that the only thing better than Vegemite on toast is watching a foreigner try it for the first time.

Modern Australian chefs now have access to a range of ingredients that were denied chefs of generations past. The developing cuisine is basically one big experiment mixing East and West recipes. Sometimes it is great. Sometimes it is not great. Unfortunately, with an emphasis on creativity over refinment, the great recipe that is sometimes created is quickly lost in further experinmentation.

For "Modern Australian", seek out "Japanese" resturuants for sushi made with carrots, canned tuna or chicken passed its used-by date. Seek out "Italian" restaurants for pizzas made with tandoori paste and yoghurt.


Craft (woodwork)

Arguably, Australia's wood craft is the finest in the world. Pieces are vesicles of emotion, impressions of the natural environment and a bridge between the world of bush and humans.

Despite their artistic merit, few art galleries display wood sculptures as works of art. This is a shame. Perhaps it is symptomatic of Australian curators following the lead of the old world in deciding what is or what is not art.

In an outdoor gallery in the Dandenongs, William Rickett's sculptures carve the random flows of native timber into human forms.


There is a stereotype that Australian men dance like Frankenstein. Their lack of rhythm and stiff knees has many of them resembling a chicken or jack in the box bouncing from side to side. Other men just watch over the dance floor, beer in hand, as they perhaps beat their chin to the music.

Bearing this stereotype in mind, it may surprise many people to know that away from the techno nightclub, Australia has created a unique dance genre known as New Vogue.

New Vogue dances originated in the 1930s and '40s when Australian dancers rebelled against the formal balletic foot work of the English Old Time dances and started to choreograph their own sequences.

The dances have open positions, which makes them attractive to watch. The dances only prescribe footwork, alignments and basic holds leaving scope for the dancers to add their own shaping and styling. This allows them to be very expressive.


Australia is not renowned for its fashion. It is generally accepted that Australia is the only country where people dress down.

Despite the lack of aesthetic appeal, Australia has produced a great array of quality apparel. The marquee fashion item has to be the ugg boot. The great feetwarmers were initially created by surfers wrapping tape around wool to create "ugly boots."

Another great fashion item is the cork hat. This was invented by Aboriginal droving hands wanting to keep the flies of their faces. Appreciating their ingenuity, whitefellas soon made hats of their own. Although aeraoguard has largely made the hats obsolete, some fisherman remain custodians of the traditional ways.

More unique fashion comes with the sleeveless Aussie rules jumper. Aside from pleasing women by displaying the male's arms, it is an adaptible item of clothing that is perfect for working on the car, playing footy, adding extra warmth, and in the case of the Hawthorn jumper, making a statement that looks aren't everything.

Melbourne Cup Day is one of the few times when looks are important. The dark clouds part and the lovely ladies come out to shine. The basic rule is that the larger the hat, the shorter the skirt. Understandably, the superfiscial aspects of such ladies make it difficult to concentrate on the horses.



In 1913, Australia produced the world's first feature film - The True History of the Kelly Gang. Since then the industry has suffered a roller-coaster ride with more lows than highs.

The highs include Gallipoli. Released in 1981, the movie is a unique addition to the anti-war genre. Instead of promoting an anti-war message by showing maiming and death, it simply fosters an appreciation for humanity so that the viewer feels loss when senseless death strikes. Hollywood's Saving Private Ryan, Born on the Fourth of July and Platoon aren't without merit, but a visit to www.orgish.com would probably do a better job.

For Australian cult movies, you can't do better than a leather clad Mel Gibson driving a black interceptor in Mad Max. In Australia, the film actually made more money than Star Wars.

In 1986, Crocodile Dundee did great things for Australia's international reputation with the story of a good humoured larrikin adapting to life in New York.

In a nutshell, most Aussie films feature a sex scene, a "quirky off-beat" relative or friend, a violent scene, a wistful stare over beautiful scenery, and an impossible to follow storyline.


In 1859, the world's first game of football was codified in Victoria. Australian Football's initial ten rules pre-date those of Soccer, Rugby, Gaelic Football and American Football.

It is believed that Australian Football may have been inspired by the Aboriginal game of Marn-Grook as well as the folk games that later evolved in Rugby and Soccer.

The code lacked an umpire for its first 20 years. Now it has three field umpires, 4 boundary umpires and two goal umpires to become arguably the most over-officiated and over regulated game on earth. The mass of rules ensures that most foreigners don't really know what is going on, and most Australians who have followed it their entire lives don't really know what is going on either. (If they do, they seem incapable of explaining it in a rational fashion. )

Australian Football has some similar elements to Gaelic Football. This may have been the result of Irish immigrants/convicts arriving in Australia and bringing elements of their homeland sports. Alternatively, it may have been Irishmen returning to Ireland and taking elements of the Australian game with them.


Australia produces 90 per cent of the world's natural opal. The opal's incorporation into pendants, broaches, rings and earrings helps give Australian jewellery its uniqueness. It also allows Australians to keep a little of their country close to their heart. If they have an intimate rendezvous with someone from a foreign country, opal jewellery also allows the foreigner to keep a little of Australia close to their heart.

Other jewellers have made unique designs by taking inspiration from the gum leaf. Timber is sometimes cut into the shape of a leaf and then etched to give texture. Some leafs are even coated with gold plate. As the organic matter burns away, its shape is left like a fossil.


David Williamson stands alone in the world of Australian playwrights. The man is a genius who weaves good humour into his psychological explorations. (Even Shakespeare would have been impressed. )

Seek out The Removalist for a story power being gained, lost, abused and misused. As the story is very funny, the smiling audience is left to ponder whether it is morally ok to laugh at the horrific violence.

It is also worthwhile getting together with friends and ranking the characters in order of most honourable to least honourable. It is unlikely agreement will ever be reached and moralistic arguments will continue well into the night. (It is recommended no sharp knives be allowed in the house else life may imitate art.)



Poetry was all the rage in 19th century Australia. Special mention must go to Banjo Patterson and his Man From Snowy River. The poem tells the feel-good story of a underdog and his rangy horse that show looks can be deceiving. (Parts of it can be found as mico-printing on the Australian ten-dollar note.)

Henry Lawson was the poet of Australian nationalism. The son of an ardent feminist, Louis Lawson, Henry was instilled with an activist ethic from an early age and used it to inspire his countrymen. Later he died an alcoholic.

Kenneth Slessor's Five Bells is perhaps Australia's most popular poem. Slessor started writing poetry during the great war. The anguish endured as he wrote about his friend found floating in Sydney Harbour. It was the last poem Slessor that ever wrote.

Other poets: George Barrington, Dorothea Mackellar, A. D. Hope, Les Murray


In the quest for immortality, two names stand alone. From the bush comes Banjo Patterson. His song about a suicidal sheep thief has resonated across the generations to become an unofficial national anthem.

From the city pubs comes the great AC/DC. Through the 70s, 80s, 90s, and 00's the energy, the sexual lewdness and the humour have been maintained. See any add for a ute on TV and you are likely to hear the great band at work.

For AC/DC's take on Australia's egalitarian ethic, seek out Big Balls, which equates the elite's quest for self-esteem with a proud declaration of testicle size.

Unique musical instruments in Australia include the Didgeridoo made from a hollow tree branch, the Lagerphone made by nailing beer caps onto a stick and the Bones made from the ribs of a bullock.

Other musical acts: Midnight Oil, Rolf Harris, Cold Chiesel, Kylie Minogue, Skyhooks, Warumpi Band, Icehouse, Nick Cave, Men at Work, Bee Gees, The Divinyls, Slim Dustry, Lee Kennegan, Chad Morgan, Heathcoate Bushwackers, John Williamson.


Patrick White - The most revered of Australian novelists, White was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1973. White wrote at a time when the bush was starting to lose its iconic status in Australian life. His international breakthrough novel was VOSS (1957), a symbolic story of a doomed journey into the Australian desert.

Peter Carey - Peter Carey won the Booker Prize for his True History of the Kelly Gang; once more showing that if you stick Ned in your art you really can't go wrong.


Emus in Landscape

If you want emotional art, then it is best to visit Europe. If you want cognitive art that makes you think, best to visit Australia.

Sometimes the issues explored by Australian painters are only relevant to Australia. In the case of Aboriginal art, sometimes the issues are only relevant to a single tribe.

The big names are Sidney Nolan, Pro Hart, Arthur Boyd, Tom Roberts, Arthur Streeton, Clifford Possum, Frederick McCubbin, Russell Drysdale, Jeffrey Smart, Ken Done.

If you what to see art created by drugs -which is like seeking art created by a wonky photocopier - seek Brett Whitely.

It is worthwhile making a trip to the Kimberley to view a mysterious form of rock art known as the Bradshaws. The art is dispersed in around 100 000 sites spread over 50 000 sq. km. Although the art's pigment can't be dated, a fossilised wasp nest covering one of the paintings has been dated at 17,000 + years old. This makes the art at least four times older than the the pyramids.The Bradshaw artists lacked many of the commonalties shared by other Australian Aboriginal tribes. Most other Aboriginal paintings used geography and animals as their subject matter. For them, art was a kind of encyclopaedia to record their history, map the land, and interpret their world.On the other hand, the Bradshaw artists chiefly focused on themselves. Some people believe it is a form of iconography like Egyptian hieroglyphics.



Puppetry of the Penis - Although there is no La Figaro nor Phantom of the Opera, there is Puppetry of the Penis. Also known as Genital Origami, the genre involves men moulding their genital area into a variety of shapes.

The stage show has been a world hit, performing live across Nth America and Europe. Large video screens allow the audience a close up of the impressive deeds being performed. Highly recommended is the Hamburger, the Woman, the Snail, the Atomic Mushroom and the Sailboard.

Tap Dogs - Americans have their Shirely Temple. Each to their own, but the concept of a little girl tap dancing away seems like something that would only appeal to the Woody Allens of the world. More on the masculine side, Australia created Tap Dogs. Men donned in Bludstone Boots and flannelette shirts dance away with raw energy.


Short Film

Although Australian actors and directors have been huge success stories in Hollywood, indicating a great deal of locally grown talent, the Australian film and television industry is largely irrelevant. The failings of the local industry, despite having so much talent to work with, can be attributed to a critical culture that is not supportive of its own and is unable to appreciate potential.

In recent years, the industry's solution to this problem has been to criticize the government, ask for more funding, or create movies criticizing the Australian public. These methods haven't worked. Director George Miller even said it was a hopeless case as Australians:

" don't have significant stories to tell, perhaps apart from the indigenous story...Australia at its heart is so racist that I don't think we can stomach it."

But it is not all doom and gloom. One proactive director, John Pulson, has started Tropfest to lead by example. Watched live by around 130,000 Australians at venues around Australia, it has now become the largest short film festival in the world. DVDs are often distributed free by major newspapers.

As each film is only seven minutes, it gives small time directors, writers, and actors the chance to showcase their potential. If only the mainstream industry could not stop whinging and instead open their eyes to talent, then it may again start producing movies worth watching.



Most of Australian television is from America. However the choice of which American shows to watch, and which to reject, is somewhat of a mirror upon Australian values. Accordingly, they affirm Australian values. The Simpsons has been hugely successful. Even though the sitcom is designed to run once a week, in Australia, every episode is repeated so many times that it has been averaging about seven nights a week since the 1992. On the other hand, Australians have largely rejected shows like Fraser and the Sopranos which are hits in America.

Although home-grown television is quite small, there are some shows that have been cutting edge and hugely influential. In the 60s and early 70s, Skippy the Bush Kangaroo was hugely popular. Skippy had the same kind of relationship with humans as did Lassie the dog and Flipper the dolphin - but Skippy was better. The Box was Australia's first soap opera. It was a naughty satire set that was famous for its frequent nude glimpses and sexual content. Number 96 was a show that challenged taboos by dealing with racial intolerance, drug use, rape within marriage, adultery and homosexuality. Prisoner was another 70s soap set in all places, a woman's prison. It dealt with issues such as mateship, dealing with adversity, dealing with authority and mental anguish.

The 80s gave rise to the more generic Home and Away and Neighbours. The two soaps play big happy families where neighbours are friends, barbies are frequent and everything is relaxed.

Barassa Shiraz


Depending on your view, the Australian style is benefited or harmed by a lack of restrictions. Australian winemakers can do whatever they want to make the wine taste good. If the season is poor, grapes can just be imported from another region and mixed with the local variety. Strawberry or coconut essences may be added to increase the wine's complexity.

Critics, particularly the French, say the lack of restrictions means that although Australian wine tastes good, it has no identity and no soul. While it may lack a soul, Orlando's Jacobs Creek has become the largest selling wine in the world. A bit like a McDonald's Big Mac, its taste can be relied upon even though it may lack artistic integrity.

In the premium category, Penfold's Grange is considered the finest wine from the Southern Hemisphere. The rival to Grange is Henschke Hill of Grace. Unlike Grange, Hill of Grace is a single vineyard wine and thus appeals more to the purists.

Major regions: Hunter Valley (Semillon), Tamar Valley (Pinot Noir), Barossa (Shiraz), Clare Valley (Riesling), Margaret River (Merlot), Rutherglen (Durif), Yarra Valley (Pinot Noir), Canberra Region (Shiraz)

Basic etiquette

Australia is an egalitarian society. When friends go to dinner, bills are split irrespective of the diner's financial background or gender.

If a beer is bought in a "round" or "shout", the recipient is expected to buy a beer in return. Again, financial background or gender is irrelevant.

If invited to diner at someone's house, it is generally expected to make a token contribution to the food being eaten or booze being drunk. This may be a salad, dessert, six pack or bottle of wine.

Nicknames and abbreviations are usually used for close friends. Friends may also insult one another as a joke. In workplace situations, titles are not usually used and bosses and employees quickly get to a first name basis.

Actions are usually deemed to speak louder than words. Gloating or self-glorification usually results in an audience trying to cut the gloater down to size.

Australia is classless to a large degree - no matter what you are paid you can still afford a bag of prawns, a bottle of wine and a beach on which to enjoy them. As a large number of Australians are able to appreciate this fact, they feel no inferiority about any lack of perceived social status.


Australian English, or Strine, is arguably the most international of all English dialects. It has been shaped by its Pommy parent, American television, one million of Australia's 20 million inhabitants living in foreign countries at any one time, and Australia having strong sporting relations with all other Commonwealth countries.

Strine's lexicon is expansive (as would be expected considering the entire planet has influenced its creation). Consequently, Strine speakers often use words that Americans don't understand. However, the reverse is not true. Strine speakers can usually understand all American words.

Reflecting an inventive mind set, idioms are very common in Strine. This allows exponents to add extra power and emotions to their clause complexes. Sometimes the idioms are sports related, for example "play a straight bat." Sometimes they relate to Australia's bush heritage, for example "I'll have a crack at her."

A unique feature of Strine is the tendency to economise clauses with abbreviations of key words. The stressed syllable is retained and the rest of the word is discarded. This can make Strine a very musical language. For example, "What are you doing in the afternoon" is quite regimented and difficult to sing. "Whacha doing in the arvo" has more rhythm flowing through it.

Another unique feature of Strine is the significant difference between male and female pronunciation. Australian men speak with what is known as a broad accent. Australian women speak with what is known as a cultivated accent (like a university educated person from England.) No other English dialect has a significant difference between male and female pronunciation.

Great expressions: kangaroos loose in the top paddock, as mad as a gum tree full of galahs, as dry as a dead dingo's donger, hit the frog and toad, have a Captains, shit happens, no worries, any dramas? as lonely as a country dunny, how is it going today (prounounced owzitgointodie), what are you doing this arfternoon ( pronounced -whachadoin'nthearvo)

Key words: Bludger (Lazy person who doesn't pull their own weight) Larrikin (funny person who breaks rules) Wowser - ( pious person who mistakes this world for a penitentiary and himself for a warder. The Larrikin's foe.)

Dawn Service


ANZAC Day - On 25th April 1923 at Albany in Western Australia, the Reverend White led a party of friends in what was the first ever observance of a ANZAC dawn service. Seven years later, the first official service was held at the Sydney Cenotaph.

As ANZAC Day was started by veterans, rather than politicians, its symbolic meaning is different to that of other military days around the world. ANZAC Day is not a time to glorify war. It is simply a time to remember what the war meant to those who were involved in it.

A central feature of the Anzac Day service is a paragraph taken from the poem 'Ode for the Fallen'.

"They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old;
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning
We will remember them. "

Melbourne Cup - Held on the first Tuesday of every November, the Melbourne Cup is a day of high fashion, drinking and gambling.

In Melbourne, the Cup it is a public holiday. In many offices around Australia, work stops for a party that often involved a sweep, hat competition and a few glasses of champagne.

Christmas - As Christmas is celebrated in the heat of summer, some of Australia's Christmas traditions are starting to diverge from those in the northern hemisphere.

As the warm weather allows Australians to spend more time outside, the Christmas tree is less important. Sometimes it is even made quickly out of VB cartoons as an afterthought.

Seafood and wine is starting to replace turkey and egg nog as the staples of the Christmas lunch and dinner.

Christmas drinks are important, and many people make an effort to get out to meet their friends.

Coat of Arms

National Symbols

The Australian Coat of Arms - An unofficial Coat of Arms was designed for the New Atlas Australia in 1886. A Kangaroo and Emu look curiously at a shield depicting the Eureka Southern Cross and four aspects of Australian industry at that time; mining, wool, wheat and tall ships.

It has been said that because the Kangaroo and Emu can not walk backwards, they were included as a metaphor of a great Australian trait to leave baggage in the past and look optimistically to the future.

National Flag - The Australian Flag has a Union Jack in the top left-hand corner to symbolise servitude to Great Britain. It also has the Southern Cross and a Federation Star.

The Union Jack makes the Australian Flag a flag of division. Some people say the Union Jack is irrelevant to the multicultural society that is modern Australia. Others say that the Union Jack is a tribute to the first urban Australians who built the cities, planned the roads, set the language, and laid the foundations for others to follow. Ironically, those who support multiculturalism on the grounds that diversity is a strength, should be happy with a flag of division as it ensures that this diversity of opinions will always remain.

Eureka Stockade Flag - The flag was designed by a Canadian Digger Lieutenant Ross during the Eureka Stockade uprising in Ballarat, Victoria, in 1854.

The flag's five stars represent the Southern Cross. The white cross joining the stars represents unity in defiance. The blue background represents the blue shirts worn by the Diggers. Because the diggers were self-employed miners who rallied together in a union style group to raise a flag, it has never been clear whether they were right-wingers, left-wingers or individualistic liberals. As a consequence, the flag has been waved by right-wing groups, and left-wing groups.

Aboriginal Flag- In 1971, the Aboriginal artist Harold Thomas designed the flag to be a rallying symbol for the Aborigines in their anti-government protests. The black represents the Aboriginal people, the red the earth and their spiritual relationship to the land, and the yellow the sun, the giver of life.

Boxing Kangaroo Flag - In 1983, the yacht Australia II ended the American's 132 year dominance of the America's Cup. The Boxing Kangaroo was the marketing icon of the campaign. It captured the essence of an Australian underdog taking on the world, and winning.





Innovation and Creativity

Thinking different

It could be described as post-Socialist but also as post Capitalist

Australian English reflects penal history and the influence of Aboriginal languages

Defying stoicism

Landscape and Identity

Creativity in the kitchen

Once were popular


""Shouting", or rather its meaning, is peculiarly Australian. The shortest and most comprehensive definition of "shouting" is to pay for the drink drunk by others." Drinking

"Australia has been hailed as a saviour of our soi-disant movie industry. So it could be, irrespective of its box office earnings, if it leads to recognition that we don't have a film industry, despite expenditure over 20 years of $1.5billion in subsidies and perhaps another half billion in tax concessions." Movies

"Australians are very difficult to impress; even if you do manage to impress them, they may not openly admit it." Social Rules

"a confused mix of landscape, animals, and Aboriginal culture, with a kind of Bible overtone." Painting

"A determined soul will do more with a rusty monkey wrench than a loafer will accomplish with all the tools in a machine shop" Wisdom

"Gallipoli tends to seem strange to outsiders, as it appears to be a celebration of Australia's greatest defeat, but in essence it is rather a commemoration of those who died serving Australia in battle, be it warranted or not." Anzac

“We must be the only country in the world that marks its national day not by celebrating its identity, but by questioning it.” Australia Day

"He declared, confidently, that an immense number of women were dying for his diminutive highness, but became terribly angry, when an ugly, red-nosed publican with a hump-back, pretended to recognize him as an organ grinder strolling about with a monkey." Egalitarianism

"Yet there are some like me turn gladly home
From the lush jungle of modern thought, to find
The Arabian desert of the human mind,
Hoping, if still from the deserts the prophets come
" Poetry