Australian PrehistoryHistory - AustralianAustralian CultureAustralian IdentityCultural Comparisons Between Australia and other Countries


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Relations between Aborigines
and colonists

Myths in History
Fabrications for politics

Should they be defined as part of a war?

Black Woman and White Man
Rape or love?

Myall Creek Masscare
Causes and consequences of colonial violence

The Stolen Generations
It's not so black and white

Jimmy Govenor
Not a good fence builder

Mary Anne Bugg
Female Bushranger

Justice or resistance?

1967 referendum
The myths

Convicts and their legacy

Convict legacy
How the past shapes the present

Convict life
Regrets and floggings

Convict crimes
Power and morality

Convict punishments
What purpose?

Larrikin Convicts
Breaking rules

Thinking different

Convict women
Moral diversity


Can Convict Creations be relied upon?

Ceasare and Pelmuwuy - Fighting and Arrival

John Ceasare

Fighting an Arrival, Fighting for Survival

Out of convenience, or to pursue a political agenda, the British colonisation of Australia is often termed a "white settlement" or a "white invasion." Such terms are inaccurate considering that Convicts of African extraction walked among those of British extraction (and Convicts of Greek, Italian, French and Indian extraction). Although their numbers were small, they had a level of influence that vastly exceeded their small numerical status, and so ensured that the colonial experience had a definitive shade of colour. These black Convicts included Billy Blue; the operator of a ferry service between Nth Sydney and Circular Quay. Aside from providing a valued service to the colony, Billy's eccentric nature helped him attain the status of what could be defined as Australia’s first celebrity. Another black included John Casare who, as Australia's first bushranger, forged a pathway that later made icons out of Ned Kelly and Ben Hall.


John Casare – The first bushranger

A hungry man

Born in the West Indies, John Caesar fled to England to escape plantation slavery. Ironically, he soon found himself transported to Australia on the first fleet where he once more faced a life of slavery.

A huge man, the small rations of the colony compelled him to steal in order to sustain himself. David Collins, the colony's Judge-Advocate, wrote in July 1789:

" This man was always reputed the hardest working convict in the colony; his frame was muscular and well calculated for hard labour; but in his intellects he did not very widely differ from a brute; his appetite was ravenous, for he would in any one day devour the full rations for two days. To gratify this appetite he was compelled to steal from others, and all his thefts were directed to that purpose." (Collins)

Caesar escapes for the first time

On 29 April 1789, Caesar were tried for theft. A fortnight later Caesar, described as "an incorrigibly stubborn black," bolted with some provisions, an iron pot, and a soldier's musket. Garden robberies became frequent.

"Caesar stole a musket ... from Abraham Hand, a marine, and took to the bush. However, any intention he had of living off the land was soon abandoned because of the scarcity of game. Instead, he began prowling around the outskirts of the settlement with a loaded musket, stealing what food he could find. On May 26 he narrowly escaped capture after he had helped himself to the rations of a gang who were making bricks at Brickfield Hill, and on the night of June 6 he was caught by a convict named Wm. Saltmarsh while attempting to steal some food from the house of the colony's assistant commissary for stores, Zachariah Clark."

Phillips dilemma.

Caesar's capture presented Governor Phillip with something of a dilemma. The Governor had to protect the colony's scarce food supply; but he saw value in Caesar's as a labourer.

"He was such a wretch, and so indifferent about meeting death, that he declared while in confinement, that if he should be hanged, he would create a laugh before he was turned off, by playing off some trick upon the executioner. Holding up such a mere animal as an example was not expected to have the proper or intended effect; the governor therefore, with the humanity that was always conspicuous in his exercise of authority vested in him, directed that he should be sent to Garden Island, there to work in fetters; and in addition to his ration of provisions he was to be supplied with vegetables from the garden. "(Collins)

Caesar escapes a second time

In December 1789, Caesar escaped for a second time.

" Caesar the black, whose situation on Garden Island had been some time back rendered more eligible, by being permitted to work without irons, found means to make his escape, with a mind insensible alike to kindness and to punishment, taking with him a canoe which lay there for the convenience of the other people employed on the island, together with a week's provisions belonging to them; and in a visit which he made them a few nights after in his canoe, he took off an iron pot, a musket and some ammunition." (Collins)

Caesar surrenders

In this second escape, Caesar was absent only a week and a half:

Sunday, 31st (December 1789): Caesar a notorious Convict a Native of Madagascar delivered himself up to the Officer at Rose Hill, He had been absent since the 22nd of December when he ran off with a canoe from Garden Island & on the 25th paid them a visit in the night & stole a Musquet, which he dropt in a Garden at Rose Hill a few nights since being closely pursued: The account he gives of his subsisting himself so long a time was, that when he saw a party of Natives with anything on, or about their Fire, that he frightened them away by coming suddenly on them & swaggering with his Musquet, then helped himself to whatever they had left; in this manner he made out very well without Ammunition, sometimes robbing Gardens: When he lost the Musquet he found it impossible to subsist himself, he was then attacked by the Natives & wounded in several places & escaped from a party of them through a very thick brush when he surrendered himself. [Bradley]

Caesar is pardoned and transported again

On 6 March the Sirius and Supply sailed for Norfolk Island, taking with them nearly a third of the population - including Caesar.

"One hundred and sixteen male and sixty eight female convicts, with twenty seven children, were put on board; among the male convicts the governor had sent the troublesome and incorrigible Caesar, on whom he had bestowed a pardon."[Collins)

Caesar returns and is flogged

Caesar returned to Sydney in 1793, and still incorrigible, took up his former practice of subsisting in the woods by plundering the farms and huts at the outskirts of the towns. He was soon taken; severely flogged but merely declared with exultation and contempt, that "all that would not make him better."

Caesar becomes a hero

Caesar was not the only troublemaker maker in the colony. Of even more concern was the Pemulwy, an aborigine who was leading a guerrilla warfare of resistance. Caesar seriously wounded Pemulwy, and was proclaimed a hero throughout the colony.

"It was however reported, that he had done meritorious action, killing Pe-mul-wy, who had just before wounded Collins (the native) so dangerously, that his recovery was a matter of very great doubt with the surgeons at our hospital, whose assistance Collins had requested." (Collins)

Caesar escapes, forms a gang and is outlawed

In 1795, Caesar escaped once more and formed a gang of fellow runaways. Hunter proclaimed a reward of five gallons of rum on 29th January 1796.

"The many robberies which have lately been committed render it necessary that some steps should be taken to put a stop to a practice so destructive of the happiness and comfort of the industrious. And as it is well known that a fellow known as Black Caesar has absented himself for some time past from his work, and has carried with him a musquet, notice is hereby given that whoever shall secure this man Black Caesar and bring him in with his arms shall receive as a reward five gallons of spirits."

Caesar evades capture

"Notwithstanding the reward that had been offered for apprehending Black Caesar, he remained at large, and scarcely a morning arrived without a complaint being made to the magistrates of a loss of property supposed to have been occasioned by this man. In fact, every theft that was committed was ascribed to him; a cask of pork was stolen from the millhouse, the upper part of which was accessible, and, the sentinels who had the charge of that building being tried and acquitted, the theft as fixed upon Caesar, or some of the vagabonds who were in the woods, the number of whom at this time amounted to six or eight." (Collins)

Caesar is murdered

"... information was received that Black Caesar had that morning been shot by one Wimbow. This man and another, allured by the reward, had been for some days in quest of him. Finding his haunt, they concealed themselves that night at the edge of a brush which they perceived him enter at dusk. In the morning he came out, when, looking around him and seeing his danger, he presented his musket; but before he could pull the trigger Wimbow fired and shot him. He was taken to the hut of Rose, a settler at Liberty Plains, where he died in a few hours. Thus ended a man, who certainly, during his life, could never have been estimated at more than one remove above the brute, and who had given more trouble than any other convict in the settlement. " (Collins)




COBLEY, J. Sydney Cove, 1788-1795. 4 vols. (Vol.1: 1788;Vol.2: 1789-1790; Vol. 3: 1791-1792; Vol.4: 1793-1795 The Spreadof Settlement.). (Lond. 1980-1983).




John Caesare
The first

Our Ned Kelly
A story heard and considered

Eureka Massacre
Dying for liberty

Post Convicts

Why is it not celebrated?

White Australia Policy
From Convicts to Chinese

Baptism of Fire or Well of Tears

Simpson and his Donkey
A larrikin and a hero

Nancy Wake
A larrikin and a hero

The Depression
Australia's Greek Moment

World War 2
The eastern chapters

Cold War
The expression of transnational identities

Prime Ministers
Values and policies of Australian leaders


The Europeans
Building a new Australia

The Vietnamese
No longer "New Australian", now "Multicultural"




"Let no-one say the past is dead, the past is all about us and within"(Oodgeroo)